Success in long-term agricultural production in resource-poor farming systems relies on the efficiency with which nutrients are conserved and recycled. Each transfer of nutrients across the farming system provides a risk of inefficiency, and how much is lost at each step depends on the type of farming system, its management practices and site conditions. The aim of this review was to identify critical steps where efficiency of nitrogen (N) cycling through livestock in smallholder crop–livestock farming systems could be increased, with special emphasis on Africa.
Rufino, M.C., E.C. Rowe, R. J. Delve, K.E. Giller. 2006 Nitrogen cycling efficiencies through resource-poor African crop-livestock systems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 112: 261-282. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2005.08.028